How did the Olmec, Aztec, Inca, Maya, and North American Indians differ in their ways of life and cultural achievements? How did their particular circumstances—geography, history, or the accomplishments of the societies that had preceded them, for example—serve to shape their particular traditions and cultures?

North American Indians had smaller villages.  The others had large civilizations and developed many cultural differences own their own.  The Aztecs were a warlike group who had an elaborate capital (Tenochtitlán). They conquered many neighboring groups, and held sacrificial religious ceremonies.  Incas held a vast empire (including as many as twelve million people at its peak), which was connected by roads and bridges. Incan religious beliefs consisted of several different polytheistic religions.  The Mayan civilization developed religious centers that grew into huge city-states. They are also known for their writing system and a number system that used the concept of zero.

What were the lasting effects of the Crusades? In what ways did they provide opportunities—both negative and positive—for cross-cultural encounters and exchanges?

Two major effects of the Crusades were that the king\’s\’ authority increased and the Europeans learned about new things from the Muslims they encountered.  The Crusades had lasting effects, both positive and negative. On the negative side, the wide-scale persecution of Jews began. Christians classed them with the infidel Muslims and labeled them “the killers of Christ.” In the coming centuries, kings either expelled Jews from their kingdoms or forced them to pay heavy tributes for the privilege of remaining. Muslim-Christian hatred also festered, and intolerance grew.  On the positive side, maritime trade between East and West expanded. As Crusaders experienced the feel of silk, the taste of spices, and the utility of porcelain, desire for these products created new markets for merchants. In particular, the Adriatic port city of Venice prospered enormously from trade with Islamic merchants. Merchants’ ships brought Europeans valuable goods, traveling between the port cities of western Europe and the East from the tenth century on, along routes collectively labeled the Silk Road.

What were the consequences of the religious upheavals of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?

There was the problem with the Vatican attempting to censor and control all literature and science. This effected many scientists, including Galileo and Copernicus. Both were brought before the tribunal for heresy, and their views were officially condemned and others were told not to hold or believe them.

On the whole, what was the impact of early European explorations on the New World? What was the impact of the New World on Europeans? 

The early European explorations caused the death of many Native Americans, but also traded with them giving the Natives new warfare technology. The Natives also traded and educated the Europeans on the food, animals, and the land of the New World.

Ch 3. 

How did chattel slavery differ from indentured servitude? How did the former system come to replace the latter?

What were the results of this shift? Indentured servitude is chosen by a person, in turn for land and/or money. Chattel slavery is forced upon another human being for no reason other than them being a different race. This shift caused an increase in the selling/trading of African American slaves.

What impact did Europeans have on their New World environments—native peoples and their communities as well as land, plants, and animals? 

Conversely, what impact did the New World’s native inhabitants, land, plants, and animals have on Europeans? How did the interaction of European and Indian societies, together, shape a world that was truly “new”? Europeans tended to overtake and destroy the New World environments, claiming pieces of land, chopping down trees, and killing the wildlife in bulk. The Native Americans showed the Europeans new food and animals, and they also taught them how to survive. The Europeans in turn, taught the Native Americans about their world, and showed them how to live, and new weapons of war.

Ch 4. 

What were the effects of the consumer revolution on the colonies?

Many factors combined to make new consumer goods available to nearly everyone in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Incomes were rising, so more people had more money left over after they acquired the bare necessities. The impulse to acquire these newfangled consumer goods was not a case of simple human nature. The pre-modern world differed in how wealth and status were expressed.

What was the impact of the wars for empire in North America, Europe, and the world? 

Wars for empire composed a final link connecting the Atlantic sides of the British Empire. Great Britain fought four separate wars against Catholic France from the late 1600s to the mid-1700s. Another war, the War of Jenkins\’ Ear, pitted Britain against Spain. These conflicts for control of North America also helped colonists forge important alliances with native peoples, as different tribes aligned themselves with different European powers.

Ch 5. 

Why did the colonists react so much more strongly to the Stamp Act than to the Sugar Act? How did the principles that the Stamp Act raised continue to provide points of contention between colonists and the British government? 

  1. A) The colonist reacted much more strongly to the Stamp Act because it introduced a higher tax rate without an increase in representation and it introduced a direct taxation system.
  2. B) The principles of Stamp Act made the colonists seem like second-class citizens which angered the colonists and increased their animosity toward Britain.

What evidence indicates that colonists continued to think of themselves as British subjects throughout this era? What evidence suggests that colonists were beginning to forge a separate, collective “American” identity? How would you explain this shift? 

  1. A) the First Continental Congress refer to George III as \”Most Gracious Sovereign\” and to themselves as \”inhabitants of the English colonies in North America\” or \”inhabitants of British America\”
  2. B) The colonist created a de facto government in the First Continental Congress
  3. C) The ever-growing strain between British and colonists over rights, taxation, and representation resulted in a widening gap between that British and the colonists which resulted in the formation of a new identity

Ch 6. 

How did the colonists manage to triumph in their battle for independence despite Great Britain’s military might? If any of these factors had been different, how might it have affected the outcome of the war? 

The French helped the Americans by using their Navy to overthrow the British on a peninsula with twice the amount of soldiers as Britain. If these factors had been different, the war could have taken way longer or we would have lost and had an uncertain amount of time under great Britain’s rule

How did the condition of certain groups, such as women, blacks, and Indians, reveal a contradiction in the Declaration of Independence?

The constitution says that all men are created equal, but all three of these groups were not being treated equally. The only ones who were equal were the white men who owned property.

Ch 7. 

In what ways does the United States Constitution manifest the principles of both republican and democratic forms of government? In what ways does it deviate from those principles?

The Republicans wanted a strong Federal government that can contain the States and have its own army and source of revenue. The current constitution has given all that to the Federal government. On the other hand, the Democrats wanted the people to have more power and the Federal government less and this has been done by giving people the right to vote, the right to recall leaders and the right to make major constitutional changes through referendums. The Constitution shows democratic principles in the way representatives are chosen through election by the people. It can also be seen in the various amendments that opened suffrage up to more people.  The republican forms of government can be seen by the fact that we elect people to represent us in government. This allows us to have a say in the dealing of government without having to be there every time a vote needs to be taken.

What were the circumstances that led to Shays’ Rebellion? What was the government’s response? Would this response have confirmed or negated the grievances of the participants in the uprising? Why? 

High inflation began to have a big impact in the 1780s. Farmers and others faced high taxes and debts, so they sent petitions to their state governments to either help their situations or revise their state constitutions, which the states refused to do. So Shay\’s rebellion started, which made government officials write legislation to punish the rebels. Governments wanted the rebels to have them claim allegiance to them, and in return they would offer them clemency. If they refused, these governments threatened, and ended up, taking up arms against Shay and the rebels and used deadly force. This was the opposite of responded positively to citizens. These actions against these farmers who were in bad situations, and many who were also veterans, were seen as shocking and deplorable. People believed that the government didn\’t respect and honor the voices of its people, especially to those who served in the war that granted us supposed democracy and justice.

Sources:

On-line US History Text:

1)The Americas, Europe, and Africa Before 1492

1.1 The Americas / 1.2 Europe on the Brink of Change – Jerusalem And The Crusades / 1.3 West Africa And The Role Of Slavery

2)Early Globalization: The Atlantic World, 1492–1650

2.1. Portuguese Exploration and Spanish Conquest / 2.2. Religious Upheavals in the 3) Developing Atlantic World / 2.3. Challenges to Spain’s Supremacy / 2.4. New Worlds in the Americas: Labor, Commerce, and the Columbian Exchange

3)Creating New Social Order: Colonial Societies, 1500–1700

3.1. Spanish Exploration and Colonial Society / 3.2. Colonial Rivalries: Dutch and French Colonial Ambitions / 3.3. English Settlements in America / 3.4. The Impact of Colonizations: Colonial Societies, 1500–1700

4)Rule Britannia! The English Empire, 1660–1763

4.1. Charles II and the Restoration Colonies / 4.2. The Glorious Revolution and the English Empire / 4.3. An Empire of Slavery and the Consumer Revolution / 4.4. Great Awakening and Enlightenment / 4.5. Wars for Empire

5)Imperial Reforms and Colonial Protests, 1763-1774

5.1. Confronting the National Debt: The Aftermath of the French and Indian War / 5.2. The Stamp Act and the Sons and Daughters of Liberty / 5.3. The Townshend Acts and Colonial Protest / 5.4. The Destruction of the Tea and the Coercive Acts / 5.5. Disaffection: The First Continental Congress and American Identity

6)America\’s War for Independence, 1775-1783

6.1. Britain’s Law-and-Order Strategy and Its Consequences / 6.2. The Early Years of the Revolution / 6.3. War in the South / 6.4. Identity during the American Revolution

7)Creating Republican Governments, 1776–1790

7.1. Common Sense: From Monarchy to an American Republic / 7.2. How Much Revolutionary Change? / 7.3. Debating Democracy / 7.4. The Constitutional Convention and Federal Constitution