12. The Inca were able to control an empire that stretched from modern Colombia to southern Chile. Which of their various means for achieving such control do you think were most effective, and why?
The Inca were able to control such a large empire effectively because of the extensive road network they had developed within it. Inca road system was an important part of the empire. The extensive network was used for relaying of messages as well as the transportation of goods.
- What were the lasting effects of the Crusades? In what ways did they provide opportunities—both negative and positive—for cross-cultural encounters and exchanges?
The crusades had various positive and negative effects on cross cultural exchanges and encounters. Some of the positive aspects were increased trade between the west and the east, which also tended to advance cultural exchange. Furthermore, the sailors were able to establish their own colonies. On the other hand, the negatives included the destruction of some kingdoms, which tended to erode some aspects of those cultures. For instance, the crusaders persecuted and expelled many of the Jews. Besides, instances of robbery increased, for instance, robbing of the treasure-laden caravans.
- What is meant by the Columbian Exchange? Who was affected the most by the exchange?
The Colombian exchange was the widespread transfer of culture, animals, plants, technology, human populations, ides, and diseases between the Americas and West Africa as well as the Old world during 15th and 16th centuries. Both the old world and the new world were considerably affected by the Colombian exchange both positively and negatively. For instance, there was widespread exchange of disease between both worlds, whereas new crops were introduced in each of the worlds.
- On the whole, what was the impact of early European explorations on the New World? What was the impact of the New World on Europeans?
The early explorations of the Europeans led to the deaths of many natives. However, it also led to increased interaction between the two groups, thus leading to the introduction of things such as new technology to the natives. On the other hand, the natives shared with the explorers aspects such as foods and some cultural aspects of their world. Besides, they trade with the Europeans increased.
- How did chattel slavery differ from indentured servitude? How did the former system come to replace the latter? What were the results of this shift?
Chattel slavery differed from indentured servitude since in the former; people are considered as property, rather than workers. They have limited rights. However, indentured servitude tend to be different in that the servants are people who work willingly servants with the objective of getting some items such as food, food, clothes, or even shelter. If allowed by their masters, these people could free themselves by purchasing their freedom. Furthermore, their masters would release them if they fulfilled their end of the deal. Besides, indentured servitude was not considered as slavery, hence they were considered as free people. For chattel slavery, the captives only had access to poor shelter and food. Since the demand for labor increased because of the released indentured servants, the cost of labor increased, and the colonial elites and landowners turned to slavery since it was a cheaper alternative.
- What impact did Europeans have on their New World environments—native peoples and their communities as well as land, plants, and animals?
Europeans considerably influenced the native people. They influenced the cultures of the natives in various ways. For instance, they introduced elements such as their clothing, new weaponry and equipment, religion, and other cultural aspects. Furthermore, for the environment, European caused immense damage through aspects such as the reckless killing of wildlife, cutting trees down, as well as extensive agricultural activities. Therefore, because of the invasion by the Europeans, there were many changes in the native’s way of life in all different aspects.
- What were the effects of the consumer revolution on the colonies?
The consumer revolution was the result of the increased supply of goods from England, and they became available to the colonies. These products linked Great Britain and the colonies in real and tangible ways. For instance, there were share tastes in things such as fashion, or even beverages such as tea.
- What role did Indians play in the wars for empire?
Indians played an important role in the wars of the empires. For instance, they allied themselves to the French considering they wanted to drive Britain colonizers from North America. Furthermore, they preferred the French over the British since French colonialists were relatively few. Therefore, one can see that Indians played an important role in the war in that they allied with the sides where they had some interests, which may have considerably affected the outcomes of the empire wars.
- Was reconciliation between the American colonies and Great Britain possible in 1774? Why or why not?
It may have been possible, but there was another challenge; it would have required compromise. During the period, building empires was not done by compromising. Negotiating with the rebels, therefore, would not have been an option for the Great Britain. The empire may have appeared too weak; hence, it could not compromise by negotiating with the American colonies. Furthermore, elements such as taxation and other oppressive would not have allowed the colonies and the colonizers to reconcile.
- Look again at the painting that opened this chapter: The Bostonians Paying the Excise-man, or Tarring and Feathering (Figure 5.1). How does this painting represent the relationship between Great Britain and the American colonies in the years from 1763 to 1774?
The image shows that the relationship between the Great Britain and the American colonies as an oppressive and exploitative one. The former appears to be oppressing the later considering aspects such as taxation, and the repercussions that followed when one failed to pay taxes. Tarring and feathering were acts public humiliation and warning, and they were just short of serious injuries to those being humiliated and warned. The victims include American merchants who violated the non-importation, or those who imported British goods. Besides, one can see that the American colonies were expected to pay exercise to the Great Britain, which may be considered as oppressive.
- How did the condition of certain groups, such as women, blacks, and Indians, reveal a contradiction in the Declaration of Independence?
The declaration stated that all men were created equally, and they all had an inalienable right to liberty, pursuit of happiness, and life. However, while the declaration stated that, some groups were not treated as equal to others. For instance, women, Indians, and black people were not treated as equals to white men, whereby there were even practices such as segregation.
- How did the Revolutionary War provide both new opportunities and new challenges for slaves and free blacks in America?
The revolutionary war led to the rise of many free blacks, which meant that they could engage in meaningful economic activities. However, it also led to a new set of challenges. For instance, because of the revolution, new laws that were even harsher were established, whereas the problem of racism also started becoming more prominent.
- In what ways does the United States Constitution manifest the principles of both republican and democratic forms of government? In what ways does it deviate from those principles?
The United States constitution manifests the principles of both republican and democratic governments through various ways. For instance, the republicans wished to have a federal government, which happens to be the case with the current American system of government. On the other hand, the democrats wanted people to have more power with regard to the way the government operated. This is achieved through certain citizen rights such as voting or the recalling of leaders and even referendums. Therefore, the principles of both systems manifest in the constitution.
- What were the circumstances that led to Shays’ Rebellion? What was the government’s response? Would this response have confirmed or negated the grievances of the participants in the uprising? Why?
Farmers and other business people were subjected to higher taxes, whereas inflation rate was also considerably high. However, when these groups sent petitions to have their government change some elements of the constitution, the state did not respond, which led to the emergence of rebellions. Furthermore, the government started passing legislations to punish the rebel, which only worsened the situation. Therefore, since the government responded with brutal force, the rebels also responded likewise. Had the government listened to the concerns of the affected groups, perhaps the rebellion would not have occurred.
- What was the most significant impact of the War of 1812?
The most significant impact of the war of 1812 was peace between the United States and Great Britain. By the end of the war, the causes had disappeared. Furthermore, the power of the native Indians to block Northwest expansion also ended. Besides, the Britons ended their plans to create a Native American State. The war also led to the end of the Federalist Party, which led to the “era of goof feelings’.
- What led to the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts? What made them so controversial?
The Alien and Sedation acts were four laws that the U.S Congress passed in 1798 due to the fear of an eminent with France. The laws had some restrictions on the activities of foreigners in the United States, and at the same time limited the freedom of the press and free speech. Furthermore, these laws were controversial since they made it hard for immigrants to get citizenship through the naturalization act. Besides, they allowed for the deportation and imprisonment of foreigners who were perceived as dangerous or from hostile nations. The laws also criminalized making false statements that involved and were important to the federal government. These laws were aimed at surprising the voters who disagreed with the teachings of the Federalist Party. They violated their speech. However, they were founded based on an undeclared naval war with France, hence they were controversial.
Corbett, P. S., Janssen, V., Lund, J. M., Pfannestiel, T. J., Vickery, P. S., & Roberts, O. (2017). US history. OpenStax, Rice University.